Roman numeral MCMXCIX is the number 1999
Roman Numerals Generator
Enter a number below to convert it into Roman numerals. Our tool allows you to convert numbers to Roman numerals with ease.
What are Roman Numerals?
Roman numerals (I, V, X, L, C, D, M) form a numeral system that was used in ancient Rome where letters represent numbers. They remained in use until the late middle ages in Europe. This is in contrast to Arabic numerals which is the moden numeric system used throughout the world (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Our tool above allows you to convert Arabic numerals to Roman numerals.
The Roman numerals and their Arabic counterparts can be found in the table below:
|Roman Numeral||Arabic Number|
The traditional Roman numeral system was only used for numbers up to 3,999 which is represented as MMMCMXCIX. You can theroretically add more “M”s to the beginning which adds 1,000 for each “M,” but an easier way is to add Roman numerals with overlines. An overline over a Roman numeral means that you are multiplying it by 1000, so V̅ is 5*1000 = 5000.
When are Roman numerals used?
Roman numerals are not commonly used in this day and age, but there are some limited scenarios where you might encounter them. You can use our Roman Numeral Generator for these different use cases. Commonly, Roman numerals are used on invitations, clock faces, and for the annual Super Bowl name. They were also used in royal titles to demark which king or queen was which.
- Royalty: Historically, Roman numerals were used in royal names. For example, Elizabeth II, or Queen Elizabeth the Second. This is also the case for popes.
- Wedding invitations: Sometimes people make wedding invitations classier by writing numbers and times in Roman numerals.
- Book chapters: Sometimes book chapters are shown as Roman numerals.
- On clocks: You can buy specialized clocks which list the hours of the day by Roman numerals.
- Classical music: Some classical music pieces list movement numbers in Roman numerals.
- Super Bowls: The annual Super Bowl’s number is always represented in Roman numerals. For example, Super Bowl LIV will be in 2020 and will be the 54th Super Bowl.
- Movie years: Movie production companies will usually show the year of their movie in the credits in Roman Numerals in order to make it harder for people to know when the movie came out so that older movies aren’t as recognizable from just the credits.
Roman Numeral Charts
Numbers 1-100 to Roman Numerals
Years to Roman Numerals
Excel’s Roman Numeral Formula
Did you know that Excel (and Google Sheets) has a built-in formula for converting numbers to Roman numerals?
Just use the formal “=ROMAN(CELL)” and the number will automatically be converted!